УРОК 14

Правила чтения

     В следующих словах буква i читается как в открытым слоге, то есть [ai].  Kind [kaind] добрый, find находить, blind слепой,

mind разум, remind [ri'maind] напоминать, behind [bi'haind] сзади, позади

     Слово wind ветер является исключением, оно читается [wind]. He runs like the wind. Он бегает очень быстро (как ветер).

Грамматика

The Past Simple (продолжение)

 

Вспомогательные и модальные глаголы to be, to have, must, can, may

Вспомогательные и модальные глаголы также относятся к неправильным глаголам, которые мы изучали в предыдущем уроке. Но мы рассмотрим их отдельно, поскольку они имеют некоторые особенности. Они имеют следующие формы прошедшего времени:

 

can – could   [kud]    I could – Я мог

may – might [maɪt]  I might – Я мог

have – had    [hæd ]  I had – Я имел - У меня был(а)

 

Глагол to be имеет две формы прошедшего времени: was [wɔz], were [wɜː]

 

 I was              We were     

 Я был (а)       Мы были  

 You were      You were    

 Ты был (а)    Вы были

 He was          They were   

 Он был          Они были

 She was        

 Она была

 It was  

 Он/а/о был/а/о

              

 

Глагол must не имеет формы прошедшего времени, и вместо него используется глагол have. Кстати глагол have может заменять глагол must и в настоящем времени. Сравните:

 

Настоящее время

 

I must go.      Я должен идти.

I have to go.  Я должен идти.

 

Прошедшее время

 

I had to go.   Я должен был идти.  

 

Когда глагол have используется вместо must, то последующий глагол обязательно стоит в инфинитиве, то есть с частицей to:

must = have to

 

We have to work. Мы должны работать.

We had to work.  Мы должны были работать.

He had to go.   Он должен был идти.

 

Прочтите вслух и переведите:

 

I could help you yesterday, I was free. When I was a little boy I might play outside with my friends at the weekends. I brought him a sandwich because I thought he might be hungry ['hʌŋgrɪ]. Very politely [pə'laɪtlɪ] the little boy asked if he might play outside. (= he said "May I play outside, please?"). They could play football when they were at school. When she was in Paris she could speak French very well. Yesterday I had to write four texts. I asked him to stay with us but he had to go home. We had eight English lessons last week. They were in London with my friends. She was in red. I had a brown car last year. She had two exams last month.

 

Словарь:

brought [brɔːt] – bring приносить, thought [θɔːt] – think думать, hungry ['hʌŋgrɪ] голодный,  politely [pə'laɪtlɪ] вежливо

 

Важной особенностью этих глаголов является то, что они образуют вопросительную и отрицательную формы без вспомогательного глагола did.

 

В вопросительных предложениях эти глаголы ставятся перед подлежащим. 

 

You could call her yesterday. 

Could you call her yesterday?

Might he go to the cinema when he was 10?

Were you at school yesterday?

Was he your best friend?

 

Исключение:​

 

Вопросительная форма предложений с have to образуется  с помощью вспомогательного глагола - did.

 

He had to work at the weekend.

Did he have to work at the weekend?

 

Отрицательная форма этих глагол образуется с помощью частица not которая ставится после глагола. Сравните:

 

I did not work yesterday.

I could not help you yesterday.

She might not go out after 9.

I was not at home yesterday.

We were not good friends at school.

 

Исключение:

 

Отрицательная форма предложений с have to образуется  с помощью вспомогательного глагола – did и частицы not.

 

I had to work yesterday.

I did not have to work yesterday.

 

Краткие формы

 

Отрицательные формы модальных и вспомогательных глаголов имеют краткие формы:

could not  – couldn’t ['kudnt]

might not – mightn’t ['maɪtənt]

was not     – wasn’t ['wɔzənt]

were not   – weren't [wɜːnt]

 

Прочтите вслух и переведите:

 

I couldn’t help my parents yesterday because I was at work. Henry was sad because he mightn’t go to the sea with us. We went to see Mark but he wasn’t at home. Yesterday we weren’t at school. Philippe, could you see your doctor yesterday? Yes, I could. Could he speak French? No, he couldn’t. Might she come to the cinema with you? Yes, she might. Might she come with you to the football match? No, she mightn’t. Were you with him when the accident happened? Yes, I was. Were you afraid? No, I wasn’t. Were they at work at eight in the morning? Yes, they were. Were they at work at seven in the evening? No, they weren’t.

 

Оборот There is – There are

в Прошедшем времени

 

           Как мы знаем, глагол to be является частью оборота there isthere are. В настоящем времени, это формы is и are. В прошедшем времени, в этом обороте, естественно,  используется формы прошедшего времени глагола to be – was и were.

В единственном числе используется there was, а для множественного числа – there were. Например:

 

There was a mistake in his text. В его тексте была ошибка.

There were mistake in his text. В его тексте были ошибки.

 

Вопросительные и отрицательные формы there was и there were.

 

Was there a mistake in his text? Yes, there was. No, there wasn’t ['wɔzənt].

Were there mistakes in his text?  Yes, there were. No, there weren’t [wɜːnt].

 

​TEXT 

 

     Yesterday I watched a film in English. I couldn’t understand the whole movie but I understood many words. After the movie, I took my English book and translated some words. There were eight words I couldn’t find in my book. Then I called my friend because I thought [θɔːt] he might know those words. I knew [njuː] those words and he helped me. I wrote those words in my notebook. I wrote a text with those words. I took a picture of my text and sent it to my friend. He checked the text and told me that there was one mistake in my text. He said that those words were difficult. But for him they weren’t difficult because he saw this movie twice last month. I wanted to watch this movie again but I didn’t have time. I had to work in the garden with my brother and sister. Then I had to do my homework. I had to read and write. But after I finished my homework I went to see my friend. We took a cab and went to town. We saw there our French teacher. She invited us to café. We sat down near the window. We spoke French with her. She spoke slowly and we understood everything. She gave us a little French book. Then we stood up and went out of the café. We wanted to go to the cinema on foot but it was far, so, she drove us there. We thanked her and got out of the car. We went to the cinema and bought [bɔːt] to tickets to the new movie. The movie wasn’t interesting, so we didn’t watch it till the end. After movie, we got home by bus. We got home at eleven. 

142BFC

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